Several Member States strongly oppose this proposal and are calling for further reform. In particular, Germany, France and Spain refuse to seek authorisation from the Commission. The EU is unlikely to be able to change the Schengen border code without the agreement of the Member States. Public order and public safety are a matter for national powers and the national parliament may oppose the principle of subsidiarity, namely that the EU can only intervene if it is able to act more effectively than the Member State. Member States are calling for an easier reintroduction of border controls, in particular because of the porous nature of the border between Greece and Turkey. There have been concerns that murderers have so easily sneaked from Belgium to Paris and that some have entered the EU with masses of migrants via Greece. Several concerns about the potential interoperability of EU databases (SIS, Eurodac, VIS) are important. There is a risk that an authority that does not have access to a database will be able to access another information system. Interoperability may also be contrary to the principle of restriction: the database becomes global and is no longer limited to a specific objective. This comprehensive approach also involves outsourcing border management. Mobility partnerships are the new element of the EU`s comprehensive approach to immigration. These framework policies include provisions on both legal immigration and illegal immigration.
Two agreements were adopted as part of this 2008 strategy. Cape Verde and Moldova have pledged to reintegrate their nationals and those who have travelled to their territory. They must also participate in enhanced cooperation with the EU to prevent illegal immigration, including the exchange of information with the EU and member state authorities. In return, the EU should offer more opportunities for migration and development assistance to States Parties. The original 1985 agreement is short, only 33 articles, and deals mainly with the issue of the opening of internal borders, while the long 1990 convention establishes a wide range of rules to strengthen external borders. Since 1985, several other instruments have been adopted by EU regulations. The main changes to the agreement (at least since Iceland left) are the adoption of the Schengen border code and the visa code. Since the adoption of the Schengen Agreement in 1985, nearly 200 Schengen rules and regulations have been adopted. These rules constitute the Schengen Aquis.
These provisions are presented below in two parts: the first concerns the abolition of internal border controls and the free movement of persons, the second is the strengthening of external borders and security issues. Although Andorra has not yet signed the Schengen Agreement, it does not have controls at its borders with neighbouring countries, Spain and France. San Marino has also not signed the Schengen Agreement, but there are no border controls with its only neighbour, Italy.