This agreement was signed between Egypt and Great Britain, which represented Uganda, Kenya, Tanganjika (now Tanzania) and Sudan. The document gave Cairo the right to veto higher projects on the Nile that would affect its share of water. Sudan and Egypt also signed an agreement in 1959 that divides the waters of the Nile between them. During the colonial period, Britain effectively controlled the Nile through its military presence in Africa. Since Sudan`s independence, Sudan has renegotiated the use of Nile waters with Egypt. The 1959 agreement between Sudan and Egypt divided the entire average annual flow of the Nile between Sudan and Egypt over 18.5 and 55.5 billion cubic metres respectively, but ignored the water rights of the other eight Nile countries. Ethiopia contributes 80% of the total flow of the Nile, but is not entitled to any of its resources by the 1959 agreement. However, the agreement between Egypt and Sudan is not binding on Ethiopia, which has never been a contracting party.  Since the early 1990s, Ethiopia has been able to counter opposition from Egypt and Sudan to water development projects in Ethiopia to increase irrigation and hydropower potential.  Since May 2010, Ethiopia and other countries in the region have implemented the framework agreement on cooperation in the Nile Basin to ensure equitable use among all countries bordering the Nile. While Egypt is heavily dependent on the Nile, there are factors that can lead to conflicts over the distribution of the Nile`s water supply. Egypt, for example, has such a dependent agricultural economy. In addition, Egypt is already dependent on virtual water imports, a strategy that could lead Egypt to attempt future water conflicts.  Ethiopia`s water flows supply about 86 per cent of the Nile`s waters. Egypt has historically threatened Ethiopia and Tanzania to wage war on the Nile. Egypt army Somali separatist rebels in Ethiopia during and since the Somali invasion of Ethiopia in the 1970s.  Over the years, the states concerned have concluded agreements and treaties to control conflicts. In 1959, Egypt and an independent Sudan signed a bilateral agreement that effectively strengthened the provisions of the 1929 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty. The 1959 agreement increased water allocations for both Egypt and Sudan – Egypt`s water allocation increased from 48 billion cubic meters to 55.5 billion cubic meters and Sudan`s from 4 billion cubic meters to 18.5 billion cubic meters, bringing 10 billion cubic meters to infiltration and evaporation. Finally, the agreement provided that if the average water yield increased, the increase in yields would be evenly distributed between the two downstream riparian countries (for example).
Egypt and Sudan). The 1959 agreement, like the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1929, does not take into account the water needs of other riparian countries, including Ethiopia, whose highlands provide more than 80 per cent of the water flowing into the Nile. The Egyptian government agrees that a settlement of these issues (irrigation issues) cannot be delayed as long as the two governments (Britain and Egypt) manage to agree on the status of Sudan, but at the conclusion of this regulation, they explicitly reserve their full freedom in the negotiations that might precede such an agreement. “To the British government: the British government has already started negotiations with the Ethiopian government on its proposal and we had imagined that the negotiations with us would have been concluded, whether this proposal came into force or not; we never thought that the British government would reach an agreement with another government on our sea. Finally, I would like to remind Your Excellency that Her Majesty`s Government in the United Kingdom has already recognized Egypt`s natural and historical rights in the waters of the Nile.