An agreement reached in 2003 relaxed domestic market requirements and allows developing countries to export to other countries with a public health problem as long as exported drugs are not part of a trade or industrial policy.  Drugs exported under such regulations may be packaged or coloured differently to prevent them from affecting the markets of industrialized countries. Article 10.1 provides that computer programs, whether in the source code or in the object code, are protected as literary works in accordance with the Berne Convention (1971). This provision confirms that computer programmes must be protected by copyright and that the provisions of the Berne Convention applicable to literary works must also be applied to them. In addition, it is confirmed that the form in which a program is located, whether in the source code or the object code, does not affect the protection. The obligation to protect computer programs as literary works means z.B that only restrictions on literary works can be applied to computer programs. It also confirms that the general 50-year term of protection applies to computer programs. The shorter possible conditions for the photographic works and works of art used should not be applied. In accordance with the general rule of Article 7, paragraph 1, of the Berne Agreement, as incorporated into the TRIPS agreement, the author`s term of protection applies and 50 years after his death. Paragraphs 2 to 4 of this article explicitly allow for shorter deadlines in some cases. These provisions are supplemented by Article 12 of the TRIPS agreement, which provides that the duration of protection of a work that is not based on a photographic or applied work, if it is calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person, may not be less than 50 years from the end of the calendar year of authorized publication or, if that authorized publication does not take place within fifty years of the date of the production of the work, 50 years after the end of the calendar year of production of the work. The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an agreement of international law between all World Trade Organization (WTO) member states.
It sets minimum standards for the regulation of different forms of intellectual property by national governments, as is the case for nationals of other WTO member states.  The TRIPS agreement was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) between 1989 and 1990 and is managed by the WTO. The ON TRIPS agreement requires Member States not only to protect the design of integrated circuits in accordance with the provisions of the IPIC Treaty, but also to clarify and/or build four points. These points relate to the duration of protection (10 years instead of eight, Article 38), the applicability of protection to articles that violate integrated circuits (last sub-clause of Article 36) and the treatment of innocent offenders (Article 37.1). The terms of the ADPIC agreement in Article 31 apply mutatis mutandis to the compulsory or non-compulsory granting of a layout licence or to its use by or for the government without the authorisation of the right holder instead of the provisions of the IPIC compulsory licensing contract (Article 37.2). Trips-plus conditions, which impose standards beyond TRIPS, have also been verified.  These free trade agreements contain conditions that limit the ability of governments to introduce competition for generic drug manufacturers. In particular, the United States has been criticized for promoting protection far beyond the standards prescribed by the TRIPS. The U.S.
free trade agreements with Australia, Morocco and Bahrain have expanded patentability by making patents available for new uses of known products.  The TRIPS agreement authorizes the granting of compulsory licences at the discretion of a country. The terms of trips plus in the U.S. Free Trade Agreement with Australia, Jordan, Singapore and Vietnam have limited the appca